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Inlet and outlet valves seal off the combustion chamber and control the charge exchange process in the engine. Valves are thermally and mechanically, highly strained components which are additionally subject to corrosive influences. The mechanical strain is a result of the bending of the valve head under combustion pressure and impact when closing (impact stress).

With corresponding construction like strength and shape of the valve headand respective choice of material, these strains are brought to a manageable level. The outlet valve is additionally heated by the passing hot exhaust gases during outlet clock opening. The valves are cooled down mainly by conducting heat via the valve seat insert to the cylinder head. The smaller proportion of the heat is conducted via the valve guide to the cylinder head.. Inlet valves reach temperatures of approx. 300 °C to 550 °C, outlet valves can get up to 1,000 °C.